What is reported speech?

Reported Speech What is reported speech? Reported speech, which is also known as indirect speech, conveys the meaning of what was said earlier without a word-for-word quote. For example: quoted speech: Frank said, “I want to take a vacation around the world. ” reported speech: Frank said that he wanted to take a vacation around the world. The second example reports the content of an earlier conversation in which Frank talked about his travel dreams. The first example tells exactly what Frank said. What is the sentence structure? Reported speech statements all follow the same structure:

introductory statement | conjunction (that) | subject | verb | object/complement Frank said | (that) | he | wanted to take | a vacation around the world. The scientist said | (that) | he | tested | new cancer drugs five years ago. Because the information may be reported in a different place, a different time, and by a different person, several parts of the sentence must also change. pronouns: A change of speaker requires a change of pronouns. Frank said, “I want to take a vacation around the world. ” Frank said that he wanted to take a vacation around the world.

verb tense: With the shift from quoted speech to reported speech, the present tense generally changes to the past tense. If the original sentence was in the past tense, then the reported speech may use either the past perfect or the simple past. Most verb tenses will experience this “backshift. ” The scientist said, “I tested new cancer drugs five years ago. ” The scientist said that he tested new cancer drugs five years ago. The scientist said that he had tested new cancer drugs five years ago. place and time: Place and time may similarly result in a shift of point of view.

Some common words are this > that and here > there. The candidate said, “I will come back here in the spring. ” The candidate said that he would go back there in the spring. How is reported speech used? Reported speech most often appears in conversation rather than in written English. Tom thinks that banking stocks will do well this year. The Australian Prime Minister said that he would improve relations with China. Is there additional information on reported speech? Yes, there are a few points. In reported speech, the conjunction that may be dropped.

For example: The scientist said that he tested cancer drugs five years ago. If a situation is current, in the future, or permanent, then the present tense may be used. ________________________________________ Skill Builders: Grammar – Pair Drills (Reported Speech) for Upper-Intermediate INSTRUCTIONS Look at the sentences. Check a dictionary for any words you don’t know. Find a partner. Read the first sentence and he will change it to reported speech. If your partner makes a mistake, please correct him. When you have read through all your sentences, switch roles and repeat. Bill said, “I went to Spain.

” Bill said that he went to Spain. PARTNER A a. Dave said, “I have a meeting at 2::00. ” Dave said that he had a meeting at 2::00. The weatherman said, “It will rain all weekend. ” The weather said that it would rain all weekend. b. Ben said, “I will go hiking on Sunday. ” Ben said that he would go hiking on Sunday. Harry announced, “I’m getting married! ” Harry announced that he was getting married!! c. The news said, “Global warming is going to cause many problems. ” The news said that global warming was going to cause many problems. The teacher announced, “There is going to be a test tomorrow. “

The teacher announced that there was going to be a test tomorrow. d. The dentist recommended,, “You should start flossing.. ” The dentist recommended that I should start flossing. Kate said to Frank, “I don’t love you anymore. ” Kate said to Frank that she didn’t love him anymore. e. Simon told his boss, “I expect a 10% raise. ” Simon told his boss that he expects a 10% raise. Skill Builders: Grammar – Pair Drills (Reported Speech) for Upper-Intermediate INSTRUCTIONS Look at the sentences. Check a dictionary for any words you don’t know. Find a partner. Read the first sentence and he will change it to reported speech.

If your partner makes a mistake, please correct him. When you have read through all your sentences, switch roles and repeat. Bill said, “I went to Spain. ” Bill said that he went to Spain. PARTNER B a. Jack said, “Everyone will meet at the bar around 7::00. ” Jack said that everyone would meet at the bar around 7::00 The dentist recommended,, “You should start flossing. ” The dentist recommended that I should start flossing. b. The Prime Minister said, “I will lower taxes. ” The Prime Minister said that he would lower taxes. The President said, “Iraq has weapons of mass destruction. “

The President said that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction. c. The repairman said, “I won’t be able to fix the car today. ” The repairman said that he wouldn’t be able to fix the car today. The sales clerk said, “There is going to be a big sale soon. ” The sales clerk said that there was going to be a big sale soon. d. My friend said, “I’ve met the perfect woman. ” Your friend said that he had met the perfect woman. The doctor suggested, “Get more exercise. ” The doctor suggested that I get more exercise. e. The teacher said, “You must study harder! ” The teacher said that I must study harder!