An Information System (IS) is the coordination of personnel, data records and activities that process the facts and information in a specified setup, including manual processes or computerized processes. The term information system has diverse meanings: a) In computer security, an information system is described by three objects: i) Structure: – Repositories, Holds records permanent or temporarily, such as buffers, RAM, hard disks, cache, etc. ii) Interfaces: -This exchanges information by means of the non-digital world, such as keyboards, speakers, scanners, printers, etc.
iii) Channels: – These connect repositories, ie buses, cables, wireless links, etc. iv) Behavior: – These are services, which present value to users or to supplementary services via messages interchange. v) Messages; – That, carries a meaning to users or services. Examples of commonly used information systems include: a) Geographic information system (GIS) which is used to integrate, store, edit, analyze, share, and display georeferenced information. Main applications of GIS, range from ecology and geology, to the social sciences.
b) In information representation, an information system consists of three mechanisms: human, technology, organization. Information is defined in terms of the three levels of semiotics. Data that can be automatically processed by the application structure corresponds to the grammar -level. In the context of an personality who interprets the data this becomes information, which keep up a correspondence to the semantic-level. Information becomes knowledge when an individual understands and evaluates the information which corresponds to the pragmatic-level.
c) In mathematics in the part of theory, a “Scott information system” after inventor Dana Scott is a mathematical ‘ arrangement that provides an option demonstration of Scott domains and, algebraic lattices. Rough set theory, an information system is an attribute-value system. d) In sociology information systems are also shared systems whose performance is heavily predisposed by the goals, principles and attitude of individuals and groups, as well as the performance of the technology.
e) In systems presumption, an information system is that which is automated or manual and comprises people, machines, and methods prearranged to collect, procedure, transmit, and distribute data that represent user information. f) In telecommunications, an information system is any telecommunications or computer correlated paraphernalia or interconnected system or subsystems of equipment that is used in the achievement, storage, handling, management, movement, control, demonstrate, switching, interchange, broadcast, or reception of voice and data, and includes software, firmware, and hardware.
The most common view of an information system is one of Input-Process-Output. History of information systems The study of information systems, originated as a sub- regulation of computer science, in an attempt to welcome and rationalize the management of technology inside an organizations. It has developed into a most important field of management, that is increasingly being emphasized as a vital spot of follow a line of investigation in management studies, as well as taught at all key universities and business schools in the world.
Information technology is a very important impressionable resource available to executives. Most of the companies include a position of Chief Information Officer who in the administrative board with the Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, Chief Operating Officer and Chief Technical Officer. Applications of information systems IS deals with the expansion, use and administration of an organization’s IT infrastructure.
In the post-industrial, information age, the center of attention for companies has shifted from being merchandise oriented to knowledge oriented, in a way that market operators nowadays contend on process and modernization moderately than product : much importance has shifted from the quality and quantity of production, to the production procedure itself, and the services that go together with the production process. The principal asset of companies nowadays, is their information, represented in people, expertise, know-how, innovations.
For a market operator to be able to compete, he/she have got to comprise a strong information infrastructure, at the heart of which, lies the information technology infrastructure. Therefore study of information systems, targets on why and how technology can be put into paramount use to serve the information flow within an organization. Information technology development The IT Department to a certain extent governs the information technology expansion, use, application and control on a business or corporation. A computer centered information system is:
a) A technologically implemented medium for recording, storing, and distributing linguistic expressions, as well as drawing conclusions from such terminology. b) can be structured as a comprehensive information systems design mathematical program. Study of information systems This deals with employment of information technology acquaintance in organizations, institutions, and the social order at large. Numerous colleges and universities at present offer undergraduate and graduate degrees in information systems and directly correlated fields.
The scientific study field which is occupied in the Tran corrective study of universal system-based properties of the world is a general system assumption, systems discipline and newly systemic. These study the theoretical properties of the matter and mind, their organization, searching concepts and main beliefs which are self-governing of the specific domain, self-determining of their substance, type, or spatial or sequential scales of existence. EVALUATION
The term Information system has multiple meanings: a) A collection of well thought-out things; as, a solar system. b) A technique of organizing or scheduling. c) A complete collected of relations amongst the members. Nearly all systems contribute to the same widespread uniqueness. These general characteristics include the following: a) Systems encompass an arrangement that is distinct by its parts and processes. b) They are generalization of authenticity.
c) They tend to function in identical manner. It involves the inputs and outputs of material that is subsequently processed causing it to transform in some way. d) A variety of parts of a system have functional as well as structural interaction between each other. The distinctiveness of systems have been premeditated in broad-spectrum systems theory, and resolved that a System is a set of interacting or mutually supporting entities, real or abstract, forming an integrated whole function or an output.
The perception of an ‘integrated whole’ can also be affirmed in provisions of a system embodying a set of relations which are differentiated from relationships of the set to other elements, and from relationships among an element of the set and fundamentals not a part of the relational regime. There are natural and man-made systems. Artificial systems in general have a definite purpose or set of objectives. They are “considered to work as a articulate entity”. Natural systems possibly will not have an noticeable objective but they are sustainable, competent and resilient.
N/B A system is a supporting concept of systems theory, which views the world as a complex system of interconnected parts. We establish a system by choosing the applicable exchanges we want to consider, plus choosing the system border line or, equivalently, given that association criteria to settle on which entities are part of the system, and which entities are outside of the system and are therefore part of the environment of the system. Finally simplified representations of the system in order to comprehend it and to forecast or impact its future performance.
An open system typically interacts with a number of entities in their environment. A closed system is secluded from its environment. A subsystem is a set of fundamentals, which are a system itself, and a element of a larger system. Social and cognitive sciences identify systems in human person models and in human societies. These comprises human intellect functions and human rational processes as well as normative principles systems and social/ and enlightening behavioral patterns.
1. Angell, I. O. and Smithson S. (1991) Information Systems Management: Opportunities and Risks 2. ederal Standard 1037C, MIL-STD-188, and National Information Systems Security Glossary 3. Rockart et. Al (1996) Eight imperatives for the new IT organization Sloan Management review. 4. Langefors, Borje (1973). Theoretical Analysis of Information Systems. Auerbach. ISBN 0-87769-151-7. 5. Ciborra, C. (2002) Labyrinths of Information, Oxford, Oxford University Press.